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Project synopses

The Centre has carried over 100 projects since the year 2000, covering a wide range of subject in the area of development and environment. The most important projects are briefly outlined below.

Information about each project has been listed per year below, click on the years to view the projects.

Review of Botswana’s CBNRM programme (2003)
This study was carried out for the National CBNRM forum, and aimed to review the progress made with the CBNRM projects, to assess the socio-economic and environmental impacts, to review the organisational capacity of the stakeholders, and to recommend improvements. The methods used included interviews, literature review, fieldwork for four CBO-case studies and consultative workshops. Outputs included an issues-and-options report and a final review report. The study was carried out in the period May to October 2003. The reports are available from www.cbnrm.bw and our website ().

Incorporating Water Demand Management in Water Strategies and Policies (2003)
CAR was contracted by IUCN South Africa office to carry out a study on the need for and methods of fully incorporating water demand management into water strategies and policies of SADC countries and of SADC itself. The study was part of the second phase of IUCN’s regional WDM programme. The study was carried out in May-June 2003. The report is available from www.iucnrosa.org.zw/wdm and our website ().

Incentives for Biodiversity Conservation in Botswana (part of the preparation of the NBSAP; 2002/03)
The Centre has been sub-contracted by Ecosurv and IUCN-Botswana to study incentives for biodiversity conservation in Botswana. The project is funded by UNDP/GEF. The component focuses on the identification of existing dis-incentives for biodiversity conservation, their modification or removal and the identification for new incentives to conserve and develop biodiversity resources.

Incorporation of Environment and Development Issues in the preparation of the National Development Plan 9 (2003-2007)- Environmental Audit of Draft Submissions (2001/02)
The objective was to ensure that environment and development issues were fully integrated in the sub-missions of Districts and Ministries for the new National Development Plan 9. Workshop and in-depth discussions were held for each district and ministry. Furthermore, environmental audits were carried out of the draft submissions from districts and ministries. Finally, the study resulted in the environmental keynote paper for NDP9 (the submission of the NCSAB), key component of which were incorporated in the macro-economic outline that guided ministries and districts. This project was carried out with Ramboll Consultants, Denmark and IUCN-Botswana. The report is available from the government web site ().

Review of Four Agricultural Subsidy Programmes (2001/02)
The Ministry of Agriculture awarded CAR the study of reviewing two arable and two livestock subsidy programmes (ALDEP, SLOCA, LWDP and drought relief). The review focused on the economic efficiency (including food security), distributional aspects and environmental aspects of the subsidy programmes. In addition, the role of the private and public sectors were reviewed. The study included a survey of subsidy programmes, re-analysis of available statistics, countrywide participatory appraisal exercises, and a national stakeholder workshop. The study was carried out between November 2001 and June 2002.

Environmental Impact Assessment of the Maitengwe Well field (2001/02)
The Centre carried out this EIA study for the Department of Water Affairs through Water Surveys Botswana. Growing water demands cause stress on existing water resources, and necessitate the construction of additional dams and well fields. The Maitengwe well field will supply villages in Central and North-East Districts of Botswana. The EIA study was carried out from April 2001 to September 2002.


Collaboration with the Department of Environmental Affairs regarding environmental economics and natural resource accounting (2006/07)
This project will results in up-dated water and mineral accounts and new livestock accounts. Policy briefs will be prepared for water resources and minerals. Moreover, four training workshops will be held to build environmental economics capacity in the country.

Preparation of a land use plan and a community rangeland resource management plan
This project is carried out for the Mokopi Development Trust and seeks to develop a land use plan and resource management plan for the communities of Mopipi and Mokoboxane south of the Makgadikgadi Pans. The project is carried out for the Indigenous vegetation Project, a joint venture between UNDP and the Government of Botswana.

Economic valuation of the Okavango (2006)
This project is part of the Okavango Development Management Plan, and carried out for the government of Botswana with partners in Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. CAR was involved in the survey of direct use values, in estimating the indirect use values and in the design and review of development scenarios. IUCN is responsible for project management. The report can be downloaded from our website ().

Export development of beef and beef products (2006)
This project is carried for BEDIA (Botswana Export Development and Investment Agency). CAR reviewed the trends in the livestock sectors and their implications for export opportunities.

 Case study of Botswana’s CBNRM programme (2006)
This study was part of a regional project that aims to document the successes and constraints of CBNRM in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe and to analyse the potential of the CBNRM approach for combating desertification. The project is funded through USAID FRAME and administered through IUCN South Africa. At present, phase 3 is in preparation.

 Best practices in CBNRM (2006)
This project is carried out for the Environmental Support Programme of UNDP and the Botswana Government. It involved three CBNRM case studies in northern, eastern and western Botswana. The results will be used for the CBNRM guidelines. The report can be downloaded from this web site. The report will be published on www.cbnrm.bw.

Environmental assessment of the livestock sector (2005/6)
This study was carried out for the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (with the World Bank in an advisory capacity) and assessed the environmental, social and institutional impacts of changes in the livestock sector and possible policy reforms. The study is based on literature review, statistics, field work, surveys among game ranchers and ostrich farmers and satellite imagery interpretation. The study also reviewed alternatives for livestock production such as game ranching and tourism.

Poverty and social impact assessment of the livestock sector (2005/6)
This study was carried out for the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (with the World Bank in an advisory capacity) and aimed to assess the poverty and social impacts of the livestock sector and possible policy reforms. The study is based on literature review, statistics, field work, especially focus groups discussions dealing with the social and poverty impacts of the livestock sector and possible reforms. The study also reviewed alternatives for livestock production such as game ranching and tourism.

Project formulation of a medium sized GEF project on sustainable land management (2005/6)
CAR participates in this project for UNDP-Botswana. It involves a critical review of the key land management issues in Botswana, extensive local consultations about project priorities and directions and project formulation.

 Botswana country water report (2005)
UNECA commissioned CAR to prepare the Botswana water report. The report’s findings are used in the process of preparing continental and global water development reports.

Botswana report on interactions between the livestock and crop sectors (2005)
CAR prepared for ICRISAT a country report on trends in and linkages between the livestock and crop sectors. The draft findings were discussed at a regional workshop in Bulawayo in September 2005 together with reports of other Southern African countries.

Review of National Youth Policy (Botswana 2004)
Government commissioned CAR to conduct a review of the 1996 National Youth Policy and to up-date the policy with recent national and international policies, programmes and conventions. The review also examined the institutional structures involved in implementing the policy. The findings are based on country-wide consultations through workshops, interviews with key informants and institutions, review of literature and public submissions after a call for comments through the media.


Development of ecotourism guidelines for Forest Reserves (2009)
The project was carried out for the Department of Forestry and Range Resources and the Environmental Support Programme (GoB & UNDP). It aimed to develop guidelines for the development of ecotourism in the Forest Reserves based on a comprehensive desk top study and consultations (focus group discussions and workshops). The report was completed in 2009. The report advocates for multiple use of the Forest Reserves and integration of the management of the Forest Reserves with the adjacent Chobe National Park to relieve congestion of the Chobe River front and increase the economic and livelihood benefits from the Forest Reserves. The report can be downloaded from our website ().

Environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of the Zambezi Integrated Agro-Commercial Development project (2008/9)
The project was carried out for Tahal and the Ministry of Agriculture. CAR leads the consulting consortium, which includes Ecosurv and Geoflux. The project reviews the main environmental and socio-economic impacts of the agro-industry, the associated settlement, the water pipeline and the inlet point. The project will be located north of Pandamatenga in northern Botswana. A large multi-disciplinary team was employed that carried out fieldwork, consultations, desk top research, and literature review & analysis. Separate mitigation measures and an environmental management plans were developed for the pipeline and for the agro-commercial site (draft reports available from www.envirobotswana.gov.bw).

Guidelines for financing and funding of river basin organisations in southern Africa (2008/9)
This study reviewed current funding sources, requirements and strategies of river basin organisations and to develop guidelines for sustainable financing of RBOs. It was carried out as part of the USAID funded Integrated River Basin Management Programme.

Guidelines for resource allocation and benefit sharing in shared water courses in southern Africa (2008)
This study developed guidelines for resource allocation and benefit sharing in shared river basins based on interviews, an E-survey and case studies from the Rhine, Mekong, Senegal, Okavango, Orange and Nkomati Rivers. It was carried out as part of the USAID funded Integrated River Basin Management Programme.

Review of Botswana’s 1986 Wildlife Conservation Policy and the 1991 Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act (2007/8)
This project was carried out for the Department of Wildlife and National Parks and the Environmental Support Programme (GoB & UNDP). The project comprised a comprehensive review of the Botswana policy and Act as well as lessons and best practices from southern Africa and the world at large. Furthermore consultations were held with stakeholders (public and private sector, communities & interested individuals). Based on the selected preferred option, a new Wildlife Policy and a new Wildlife Act were developed.

Environmental Impact assessment of the Jwaneng Sewerage Upgrading project (2007/8)
This study is carried out for the Jwaneng Town Council and includes scoping, a full impact assessment and an environmental management plan for the operation of the up graded sewerage system.

Development of a professional training courses strategy for Waternet (2007/8)
The project is a collaboration with the Institute for Water and Sanitation Development (Zimbabwe) and TIDASA (South Africa) and has developed a short course strategy for professionals in IWRM and WDM.

Botswana Human Development Report (2008) and Common Country Assessment (2007)
This project is carried out in association with Econsult for the Government of Botswana and UNDP-Botswana. The theme of the report is poverty reduction, environment, trade, governance. CAR is responsible for the environmental chapter with links to poverty, trade and governance. It is a follow up of an earlier collaborative project between CAR and Econsult on the development of a Common Country Assessment, which guides UNDP’s country strategy and planning.

Environmental impact assessment of BMC abattoirs and tannery (2007)
CAR and Ecosurv carry out a retrospective EIA of two abattoirs and one tannery of the Botswana Meat Commission. The study covers the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the operations and the associated pre-treatment plants and proposed mitigation measures. The EIA includes environmental management plants for each BMC operation.

CBNRM analysis for the regional USAID Frame project (2007)
CAR has been tasked to compile a general Botswana country report on the relevance of CBNRM for combating desertification followed by an in-depth report with two CBNRM case studies. In addition, CAR did a desktop study for southern Africa on ‘CBNRM, livelihood, poverty and food security’. The reports can be downloaded from the USAID supported website () and our website ().

Collaboration with the Department of Environmental Affairs regarding environmental economics and natural resource accounting (2006/07)
This project will results in up-dated water and mineral accounts and new livestock accounts. Policy briefs will be prepared for water resources and minerals. Moreover, four training workshops will be held to build environmental economics capacity in the country.


Water accounting under the WAVES programme (Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (2012-15)
CAR collaborates with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in up-dating and improving Botswana’s water accounts using the UN – System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA Water). The water accounts will become an important water resource management tool for DWA. This project is part of a broader WAVES-partnership between the Government of Botswana and the World Bank (). Botswana has been selected as one of the pilot countries in the world for this environmental economic programme. Other pilot countries include Colombia, Costa Rica, Madagascar and the Philippines.

Scoping study for waste management in and around Gaborone (2012-13)
This study was carried out for the Japanese government, and aims to assess the current situation with respect to waste management in and around Gaborone, and identify areas for possible Japanese assistance in future. The study involved data collection, consultations with key stakeholders and waste management analysis from the green economy perspective. The report can be downloaded from our website ().

Preparation of the Botswana IWRM-Water Efficiency Plan (2011-12)
As the national consultant, this project was carried out for Kalahari Conservation Society (KCS) and UNDP, and was a follow up of the scoping study for the same Plan carried out by CAR in 2010. The Plan preparation was done in cooperation with the Department of Water Affairs and the KCS. The project included expensive IWRM-analysis, review of global IWRM plan and benchmarking and extensive consultations with the leading economic sectors and stakeholders in the districts. The draft Plan was discussed at DWA’s Water Pitso in September 2012 and subsequently finalised. The Botswana IWRM-WE plan can be downloaded from the government website () and our website ().

Study of the Transformation towards a Green Economy in the Small State of Botswana (July – Sept. 2012)
The Commonwealth Secretariat commissioned CAR to conduct a brief study on the transformation towards a Green Economy of Botswana. The study was one of the country studies that provided the inputs into the Commonwealth Conference Sept. 2012. The report is also published as a chapter in the Commonwealth book transitioning to a Green Economy”. It is available for purchase from the Commonwealth Secretariat online bookshop ().

Preparation of a Green paper on Human-Wildlife Conflicts (2011-2012)
This GEF funded project was carried out for the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) and started in August 2011. The project included a wildlife resources and sector analysis leading to an issue and options paper, discussions with communities in three areas of northern Botswana (panhandle – Okavango), Boteti area and villages along the Chobe River. The draft Green Paper was discussed at a National Stakeholder workshop and subsequently finalised.

 Assessment of viability of commercial tourism on Farm 84-OQ (2011 for BTO)
The project investigated the viability of commercial tourism on this farm close to Ntimbale Dam. The study looked at the environmental, tourism, archaeological and economic aspects of different forms of tourism that can be considered at the farm. It suggested several alternatives and modifications for the tourism development of the farm.

Livestock Sector Policy Note for Namibia (2011 for NPC Namibia)
This World Bank project was carried out for the Namibian National Planning Commission and is meant as input into the preparation of the new National Development Plan. The focus was on growth and employment creation in the livestock sector; CAR was responsible for the bush encroachment control and other environmental issues, including agricultural adaptation to climate change. The note was used in the discussions towards the next National Development Plan of Namibia.

Water audit of the Okavango River Basin (2010-11)
This project is carried out for FAO and OKACOM and covers Angola, Namibia and Botswana. CAR was responsible for project coordination and led water demand estimates, policy environment assessment and the synthesis of all results. Additional consultants were contracted to deal with water supply, data base and information, and GIS/RS. The project was funded by the Italian government through FAO () and OKACOM ().

World Bank Botswana country note on mainstreaming of environmental issues in development planning (2010)
CAR was part of the World Bank team that prepared two country papers at the request of the Botswana government. This paper dealt with environmental mainstreaming in development planning, particularly in the process of national development planning (NDP).

World Bank Botswana country note on climate change adaptations with particular reference to the water sector (2010)
CAR was part of the World Bank team that prepared two country papers at the request of the Botswana government. The first paper dealt with environmental mainstreaming in development planning. The paper dealt with the impacts of and adaptation to climate change, in particular in the water sector. A concluding workshop was held to discuss the findings with stakeholders. The note has been the stepping stone towards a climate change adaptation strategy.

 Establishment of a system of economic accounts of water in SADC (2010)
CAR was contracted by French EGIS to participate in the establishment of a system of Economic Accounts of Water in the SADC region (EWA). CAR was responsible for the parts of economic valuation and linkages between EWA and IWRM & WDM. Chapters were written for the training manual and CAR staff taught in three training courses for institutions dealing with water resource management and accounts. The project was carried out for SADC with EU funding (www.sadc.int).

Scoping study for Botswana IWRM-WE project (2010)
This study was carried out for the IWRM-WE project, hosted by the KCS-Botswana. CAR identified the required scope of activities for the project based on desk top analysis, key informant interviews, and consultations and discussion with districts. The Scoping Report indicates in detail which activities should be undertaken and has a road map for their implementation. The report can be downloaded from our website ().


OKACOM Water Allocation Strategy (2015-16)
OKACOM commissioned the development of a discussion paper on water allocation strategy in the Cubango-Okavango River Basin (CORB). The paper was presented and discussed in Luanda at the May 2015 OKACOM meetings. In March 2016, OKACOM awarded CAR the contract to develop the WAS. This activity will be done in 2016.

Support for UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Dossier Development for the Makgadikgadi wetland (2015-16)
Following a prefeasibility study done by CAR, the Centre supports the Botswana MAB Committee with the development of a nomination dossier for submission to UNESCO. The intended submission date is end of September 2016. The German department for Nature Conservation (BfN) is funding the project.

Framework Development for the Botswana National Strategy on Sustainable Development (2014-15).
CAR was part of the team responsible for stakeholder consultations. Moreover, CAR offered (environmental-) economic expertise to the team and participated in drafting the framework. The contract was with UNDP and the client was the Department of Environmental Affairs.

Study of water pricing, poverty and equity in Southern Africa (2015)
This completed project examined to what extent poverty and equity issues are incorporated in water pricing and vice versa. The focus was on Botswana and South Africa but Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia were also reviewed. It was a desk top study supplemented by interviews of key persons in each country. The project was carried out for the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) and the Water Research Commission (WRC).

Water governance in Botswana (2015)
CAR prepared a policy note on water governance in Botswana for SAIIA. This was a desk top study with a stakeholder seminar for the discussion of the draft findings. The paper can be found here ().

Consultations for the National Strategy on Sustainable Development (2014-15)
CAR participates in the consultation team for the NSSD. The work include the design of a consultation strategy, facilitation of district and sectoral workshops and interviews with senior government and private sector persons.

Evaluation of Human Capacity Building Interventions in transboundary water resource management (2014-15)
GIZ contracted CAR to evaluate four human capacity building interventions under its TWRM programme, i.e. RBO workshop, water dialogue, water week and training courses on international environmental and water legislation and conflict resolution. The project included a mail survey, participatory observations and in-depth interviews with participants in all SADC countries.

Scoping for the WAVES Rwanda programme (2014-15)
CAR participated in the preparation of the scoping for the WAVES programme in Rwanda. Land and water accounts were prioritised given their importance for the country and data availability.

Botswana Energy accounting (2014-15)
CAR assisted the Department of Energy with the scoping study for the energy accounts, the development of a detailed work plan and training in energy accounting (together with a consultant from UK Statistics).

Evaluation of Human Capacity Development activities of the Transboundary water management programme in SADC (2014-15)
The activities included the River Basin Organisation Workshops, the Multistakeholder Dialogues, training workshops and the SADC Water Weeks. The study was carried out for SADC and GIZ. A survey was held among participants and two activities attended for participatory observations.

Scoping for water accounting in Rwanda (2014)
CAR participated in the World Bank scoping team to develop natural capital accounting in Rwanda. The project included a mission to Rwanda to discuss needs and priorities with key stakeholders in government and elsewhere as well as reporting. Rwanda is now working on land and water accounts.

Ecosystem Accounting in Botswana (2014)
CAR assisted the Department of Environmental Affairs with the scoping study for the establishment of ecosystem accounts in Botswana (with a Dutch consultant, University of Wageningen).  Government and WAVES still need to decide if and how ecosystem accounting in Botswana will be implemented.

Review of Botswana’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2013-14)
This project is carried out in association with Ecosurv for the Dep. of Environmental Affairs. CAR is responsible for the environmental economic aspects of the review and for assessing funding requirements.  The project includes a stock taking/inventory stage, consultations with stakeholders, and a strategy development phase.

Prefeasibility study for the establishment of a Biosphere Reserve in Botswana (2013-14)
This project is carried out for the Botswana Man and Biosphere Committee and UNESCO and funded by the German Government. The objective is to identify a site that is suitable to become a Biosphere Reserve using the UNESCO criteria for a biosphere reserve designation.  The project assesses and ranks eight potential sites and does a further assessment with local consultations of the highest ranked site.

Water accounting under the WAVES programme (Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (2012-15)
CAR collaborates with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in up-dating and improving Botswana’s water accounts using the UN – System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA Water). The water accounts will become an important water resource management tool for DWA. This project is part of a broader WAVES-partnership between the Government of Botswana and the World Bank (). Botswana has been selected as one of the pilot countries in the world for this environmental economic programme. Other pilot countries include Colombia, Costa Rica, Madagascar and the Philippines.

Botswana inventory and assessment of lead acid batteries and waste oil (2013)
This study was carried out for the Africa Institute with EMS Consulting, Belgium.  Similar studies were carried out in 8 other African countries, and the results were synthesised by EMS to improve management of lead acid batteries and waste oil in Africa.

Water Botswana country studies (2013) GWP Transboundary water resource management programme
CAR carried out two Botswana country studies for 1. water sector funding and financial requirements and 2.for the compliance with the SADC regional Water Policy. The studies were desk top studies supplemented by interviews with key resource persons.

Scoping study for waste management in and around Gaborone (2012-13)
This study was carried out for the Japanese government, and aims to assess the current situation with respect to waste management in and around Gaborone, and identify areas for possible Japanese assistance in future. The study involved data collection, consultations with key stakeholders and waste management analysis from the green economy perspective. The report can be downloaded from our website ().

Preparation of the Forest Conservation Strategy for Forest Conservation Botswana (2012).
CAR prepared the Forest Conservation Strategy for FCB, which manages the Forest Conservation Fund. This fund is established after a debt-for-nature swap between the governments of Botswana and the USA, and offers grans and support for forest conservation activities. The project included a desktop analysis of the forest sector and its issues, workshops to discuss the options for FCB to improve forest management and conservation.


Project synopsis 2017 NSSD project (2017)
UNDP has contracted CAR to carry out a technical study for the Botswana National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD). This desk top study comprises a situation analysis and the development of thematic papers for the eight blocks of the Framework for Sustainable Development as well as the development of the NSSD synthesis paper. The blocks comprise, changing behaviour and practices, changing production and consumption patterns, building resilience and adaptation, measuring real development, integration of sustainable development, investments in sustainable development, education/research and indigenous knowledge, and new development opportunities.

Tourism Plan Development for Shashe Dam (2016)
This project is carried out for Botswana Tourism Organisation as sub-contractor from Hatfield. It involves a strategic environmental assessment as well as the development of a management plan. CAR is responsible for the socioeconomic assessment and public participation.

Rapid CBNRM status assessment (2016)
This project updates available CBNRM situation information from 2012 onwards. It seeks to determine the status of CBNRM projects and their performance since 2012. The project includes a mail survey among the active community based organisations (CBOs), desk top review and field visits to selected CBOs. The project is funded by the USAID. Implemented by Chemonics.

Benefit assessment of transboundary water cooperation in the Cubango-Okavango River Basin (2016)
This project assesses the perceived benefit of TWC in the Cubango-Okavango Basin in Botswana. Similar national studies are carried out in Angola and Namibia. The purpose is to document the economic, social and environmental benefits of TWC through improved water resource management and increased trust among member states. The project is funded by the Climate Resilient Infrastructure development Facility (CRIDF).

EIA of soda ash plant in Ethiopia (2016)
CAR leads the socio-economic component of the EIA and the environmental economic assessment. This is a sub-contract with Ecosurv. It involves scoping, environmental impact assessment and development of an environmental management plan. The project has been suspended due to instability in the area.

OKACOM Water Allocation Strategy (2015-16)
OKACOM commissioned the development of a discussion paper on water allocation strategy in the Cubango-Okavango River Basin (CORB). The paper was presented and discussed in Luanda at the May 2015 OKACOM meetings. In March 2016, OKACOM awarded CAR the contract to develop the WAS. This activity was completed in 2016.

Support for UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Dossier Development for the Makgadikgadi wetland (2015-16)
Following a prefeasibility study done by CAR, the Centre supports the Botswana MAB Committee with the development of a nomination dossier for submission to UNESCO. The German Department for Nature Conservation (BfN) is funding the project.