CAR has carried out over 100 projects between the period 2000 to 2020, varying in size and location (Botswana and southern African region). The map on this website shows the location of some of the projects. Roughly eighty percent of the projects are consultancies, the remainder being research and training. Almost eighty percent is carried out in Botswana with the rest in (southern) Africa. The project activities are briefly reviewed below by category: consulting, research and training.
To view the location of completed projects on a map, click here.
CAR has worked on natural capital accounting for 15 years in Botswana and in southern Africa. Three projects have been carried out to support the development of natural resources accounting at the Department of Environmental Affairs, Botswana. CAR also participated in an EU-funded project to develop a natural resource accounting methodology for SADC countries and for transboundary river basins (www.sadc.int). Most recently, CAR assisted the Dep. of Water Affairs, Government of Botswana, to construct and maintain SEEA-WA styled water account through the World Bank programme on Wealth Accounting and Payment for Ecosystem Services (WAVES) (www.water.gov.bw and www.wavespartnership.org). CAR also assists in the development of Botswana Energy Accounts and scoping for Botswana ecosystem accounts. In 2014, CAR assisted the Rwandan government in the design of its NCA – WAVES programme. Afterwards, CAR supported SEEA-CF (water and forests) and Ecosystems accounting in Zambia (2018) and Uganda (2019).
Water resource management projects include the benefit assessment of transboundary water cooperation in the Cubango-Okavango River basin, water allocation strategy for the Cubango Okavango River Basin, preparation of the Botswana IWRM-water Efficiency Plan, Water Audit of the Cubango-Okavango River basin for FAO and OKACOM, including demand studies, water economics and irrigation as well as institutional mapping and two country studies for GWP on water sector funding and financing requirements as well as compliance with the regional water policy in the national policy setting. Based on its work in the CORB, CAR was invited to the Un-ECE expert group to support the preparation of a handbook on water allocation strategies in transboundary river basins (2020). CAR also worked in three transboundary basins between Mozambique and Zimbabwe (Buzi, Pungwe and Save) on the impacts of Cyclone Idai and strengthening of community resilience (2020). This project is part of the Resilient Waters Program.
With respect to wildlife management and biodiversity conservation, CAR prepared a Green Paper on Human Wildlife Co-Existence (Green Paper for the Department of Wildlife and National Parks 2010-11) after it carried out the review of Botswana 1986 Wildlife Conservation and 1991 Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act for the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in 2007/8. CAR participated in the development of Botswana’s first Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BDSAP) in 2003, being responsible for environmental economic analysis and financing. This was repeated in 2013/4, for the review and up-dating of Botswana’s BDSAP.
With respect to sustainable development, CAR participated in the consultation team for the preparation of Botswana’s National Strategy on Sustainable Development (NSSD). CAR supported the Botswana, UNESCO MAB Committee in the preparation of a nomination dossier for Biosphere Reserve status of the Makgadikgadi Wetlands. Furthermore, CAR conducted a Commonwealth Study on Transitioning towards a Green Economy in Botswana and works on sustainable development issues through its work on natural capital accounting and Integrated Water Resource management (IWRM), which can be considered as ‘sustainable development applied to the water sector, and through the water audit for the Cubango Okavango River basin (for FAO and OKACOM).
Specific environmental economic activities include natural capital accounting, natural resource valuations (e.g. Okavango Delta and Makgadikgadi), the integration of Environmental Economics in the Handbook for Planning Officers and the incorporation of Environmental Economics in Botswana’s National Development Plan 9 and 10. CAR also assisted non-governmental organisations to finalise their strategy on sustainable development, implemented through IUCN. In 2019, CAR carried out an economic valuation of environmental externalities of a planned new coal mine in Botswana (as part of the EIA).
For environmental assessments, CAR carried out a prefeasibility study for Biosphere Reserves in Botswana, funded by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. CAR also prepared Makgadikgadi Framework Management Plan in partnership with the Department of Environmental Affairs, Government of Botswana. It conducted a rapid strategic environmental assessment of Namibia’s livestock sector as part of a World Bank policy note on the Livestock Sector for Namibia’s next National Development Plan. In 2009 CAR completed the environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of the Zambezi Integrated Agro-commercial Development Projects in Northern Botswana. Earlier, CAR worked on the SEA and PSIA of Botswana’s livestock sector (2005/06). The Centre carried out an EIA of the Maitengwe well field in northern Botswana (2001/02) and has participated in the environmental assessment of the Gaborone dam catchment area (2002).
Over time, CAR has developed or contributed to a number of natural resource and development plans. These include contributions to the Okavango Delta Management Plan (economic valuation and assistance to the policy and legislative review), the Makgadikgadi Framework Management Plan (lead consultant) and community natural resource and land use plans (e.g. the Mokopi Conservation Trust near Orapa). From May December 2013, CAR led the team of experts contracted by KAZA to develop the KAZA Master Integrated Development Plan.
CAR is also actively involved in the tourism and community based natural resource management (CBNRM) sector. In 2016, CAR prepared an up-dated inventory of CBNRM projects in Botswana. In 2009, CAR participated in the preparation of the Tourism Development Plan for Shashe Dam. CAR prepared ‘Ecotourism guidelines for Botswana’s Northern Forest Reserves’ for Dep. of Forest and Range Resources and it also conducted a feasibility study of the tourism potential of a farm at Ntimbale Dam for the Botswana Tourism Organisation. CAR carried out the first review of Botswana’s CBNRM projects in 2003; this was followed by several CBNRM case studies, including for Kgetsi ya Tsie in eastern Botswana, BORAVAST in south western Botswana, and Sankuyo Tswaragano Development Trust close to the Okavango Delta.
Finally, CAR has carried out a range of policy and programme reviews. CAR reviewed Botswana’s compliance with the SADC Water Policy (2013). Earlier CAR reviewed the Botswana’s Wildlife Policy and National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (2008). CAR participated in the Review of the Botswana Rural Development Policy (2000/01) and reviewed Four Agricultural Subsidy Schemes (2001/02) and CBNRM projects in Botswana (2003). CAR has also assessed community-based rangeland management models for Botswana (2004) and reviewed Botswana’s National Youth Policy (2004).
CAR sponsors own research projects, including the analysis of the relationship between rainfall and livestock and crop production in Botswana (2020), assessment of nightlights as a proxy for economic activities (GDP) in 2019), the potential of niche markets for Botswana’s veldproducts (2018) and the potential of veldproducts for economic diversification.
For research projects CAR usually opens a separate bank account, and operates on a full- cost recovery basis, similar to what university-based research institutes typically do.
3) Training and training material development
In its endeavour to build local capacity, the Centre supports and collaborates with non-governmental organisations (e.g. Birdlife Botswana, IUCN, Kalahari Conservation Society and The Forestry Association of Botswana), universities (e.g. Universities of Botswana and Lesotho, University of Pretoria and New York University) and government ministries and departments (e.g. environmental departments/ministries, Department of Water Affairs and Ministries of Agriculture and Finance and Development Planning).
The Centre gets regular requests for support and advice from students. Several students from the regional IWRM Masters Programme have done their project at CAR under CAR staff supervision. In addition, CAR has hosted interns and some trainees Environmental Assessment Practitioners.
The Centre contributes to various national, regional and global initiatives, including the following:
- Promotion of environmental economics in the region
- Promotion of integrated water resource management through participation in Waternet (member of waternetonline.org) and the Global Water Partnership (www.gwpsa.org)
- Participation in global change research initiatives
- Member of Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM) and Sustainable Livelihoods group (SULI)